I have come across director of Institute for U.S. and Canadian Studies Sergei Rogov’s Russian-language pamphlet “New Shock Therapy and So-called Reform of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In it Rogov accuses minister of education Dmitry Livanov of trying to ruin the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAN) by implementing what he believes to be ill-thought reforms that boil down to merge of this academy with the medical and agricultural academies and reorganization of property management with a new agency created to manage all of the multi-billion real estate and other property that belongs to the academy.” “The current reform is nothing, but a seizure of RAN’s property” and it is a “threat to Russia’s national security,” according to Rogov.
See selected figures and facts below followed by a background article:
Glorious Soviet past:
· USSR’s R&D expenditures accounted for up to 5% of GDP.
· USSR had 1.5 mln researchers who accounted for about 25% all researchers in the world.
· Industrial R&D was represented by 5,000 research institutes and design bureaus.
· In 1992-2011:
o Number of research organizations declined in Russia from 4555 to 3682 and Russia is now has world’s fourth largest army of researchers . Quite modest decline.
o Number of design bureaus declined from 865 to 364. Quite steep, but partially justified by demilitarization of the economy.
o Number of researchers declined from 992,000 to 374,000.
o Average wage of a researcher was 1,100 USD per month in Moscow compared to Moscow’s average wage of almost 2,000 USD per month as of 2013.
o RAN’s Institute of Economics estimates that:
§ More than 800,000 employees of research organizations had migrated out of Russia by 2000.
§ 15% of new college graduates leave Russia every year
Dollars spent on R&D per capita:
|Finland||More than 1400|
|USA||More than 1300|
|Germany||More than 1100|
|Japan||More than 1100|
|EU||More than 700|
|Russia||More than 200|
|China||More than 150|
|Country||Share of expenditures on fundamental research in GDP, %|
· Number of references in Web of Science to publications by RAN researchers increased from 13,500 in 2001 to 16, 821 in 2009 before declining to 16,821 in 2012. References to RAN publications accounted for more than half of all Russian references in Web of Science in 2012.
· RAN’s Institute for U.S. and Canadian Studies (ISKRAN) and Institute of World Economy and International Relations (IMEMO) invariably mentioned in the The Global GoTo Think Tank rankings. Note that both are Belfer’s partners in IPNT.
|Name of organization||Number of highly quoted scientists|
|Moscow State University||565|
|Kurchatov Institute and its subsidiaries||233|
|Russian Academy of Medical Sciences||65|